Module 3 covers all things electrical and looks at Electron theory, Static Electricity, Terminology, Generation DC sources & Circuits, Resistance, Capacitance, Magnetism, Inductance, AC theory, AC Generators & Motors

Detailed Content / Topics – The following Subjects will be addressed -1. Electron Theory

– Structure and distribution of electrical charges within: atoms, molecules, ions, compounds;

– Molecular structure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators2. Static Electricity and Conduction

– Static electricity and distribution of electrostatic charges;

– Electrostatic laws of attraction and repulsion;

– Units of charge, Coulomb’s Law;

– Conduction of electricity in solids, liquids, gases and a vacuum3. Electrical Terminology

– The following terms, their units and factors affecting them: potential difference, electromotive force, voltage, current, resistance, conductance, charge, conventional current flow, electron flow.

4. Generation of Electricity

– Production of electricity by the following methods: light, heat, friction, pressure, chemical action, magnetism and motion.

5. DC Sources of Electricity

– Construction and basic chemical action of: primary cells, secondary cells, lead acid cells, nickel cadmium cells, other alkaline cells;

– Cells connected in series and parallel;

– Internal resistance and its effect on a battery;

– Construction, materials and operation of thermocouples; Operation of photo-cells6. DC Circuits

– Ohms Law, Kirchoff’s Voltage and Current Laws;

– Calculations using the above laws to find resistance, voltage and current;

– Significance of the internal resistance of a supply.7. Resistance/Resistor

– Resistance and affecting factors;

– Specific resistance;

– Resistor colour code, values and tolerances, preferred values, wattage ratings;

– Resistors in series and parallel;

– Calculation of total resistance using series, parallel and series parallel combinations;

– Operation and use of potentiometers and rheostats;

– Operation of Wheatstone Bridge;

– Positive and negative temperature coefficient conductance;

– Fixed resistors, stability, tolerance and limitations, methods of construction;

– Variable resistors, thermistors, voltage dependent resistors;

– Construction of potentiometers and rheostats;

– Construction of Wheatstone Bridge8. Power

– Power, work and energy (kinetic and potential);

– Dissipation of power by a resistor;

– Power formula;

– Calculations involving power, work and energy.9. Capacitance/Capacitor

– Operation and function of a capacitor;

– Factors affecting capacitance area of plates, distance between plates, number of plates, dielectric and dielectric constant, working voltage, voltage rating;

– Capacitor types, construction and function;

– Capacitor colour coding;

– Calculations of capacitance and voltage in series and parallel circuits;

– Exponential charge and discharge of a capacitor, time constants;

– Testing of capacitors.10. Magnetism

– Theory of magnetism;

– Properties of a magnet;

– Action of a magnet suspended in the Earth’s magnetic field;

– Magnetisation and demagnetisation;

– Magnetic shielding;

– Various types of magnetic material;

– Electromagnets construction and principles of operation;

– Hand clasp rules to determine: magnetic field around current carrying conductor;

– Magnetomotive force, field strength, magnetic flux density, permeability, hysteresis loop, retentivity, coercive force reluctance, saturation point, eddy currents;

– Precautions for care and storage of magnets11. Inductance/Inductor

– Faraday’s Law;

– Action of inducing a voltage in a conductor moving in a magnetic field;

– Induction principles;Effects of the following on the magnitude of an induced voltage: magnetic field strength, rate of change of flux, number of conductor turns; Mutual induction;

– The effect the rate of change of primary current and mutual inductance has on induced voltage;

– Factors affecting mutual inductance: number of turns in coil, physical size of coil, permeability of coil, position of coils with respect to each other;

– Lenz’s Law and polarity determining rules;

– Back emf, self induction;

– Saturation point;

– Principle uses of inductors.12. DC Motor/Generator Theory

– Basic motor and generator theory;

– Construction and purpose of components in DC generator;

– Operation of, and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators;

– Operation of, and factors affecting output power, torque, speed and direction of rotation of DC motors; – Series wound, shunt wound and compound motors;

– Starter Generator construction.13. AC Theory

– Sinusoidal waveform: phase, period, frequency, cycle;

– Instantaneous, average, root mean square, peak, peak to peak current values and calculations of these values, in relation to voltage, current and power;

– Triangular/Square waves;

– Single/3 phase principles.14. Resistive (R), Capacitive (C) and Inductive (L) Circuits

– Phase relationship of voltage and current in L, C and R circuits, parallel, series and series parallel; – Power dissipation in L, C and R circuits;

– Impedance, phase angle, power factor and current calculations;

– True power, apparent power and reactive power calculations15. Transformers

– Transformer construction principles and operation;

– Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them;

– Transformer action under load and no-load conditions;

– Power transfer, efficiency, polarity markings;

– Calculation of line and phase voltages and currents;

– Calculation of power in a three phase system;

– Primary and Secondary current, voltage, turns ratio, power, efficiency;

– Auto transformers.16. Filters

– Operation, application and uses of the following filters: low pass, high pass, band pass, band stop.

17. AC Generators

– Rotation of loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced;

– Operation and construction of revolving armature and revolving field type AC generators;

– Single phase, two phase and three phase alternators;

– Three phase star and delta connections advantages and uses;

– Permanent Magnet Generators.18. AC Motors

– Construction, principles of operation and characteristics of: AC synchronous and induction motors both single and polyphase;

– Methods of speed control and direction of rotation;

– Methods of producing a rotating field: capacitor, inductor, shaded or split pole.

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