Module 2 Covers Physics and looks at Fundamental Units, Matter, Mechanics both Static, Kinetic and Dynamic, Fluid Dynamics & Thermodynamics. Optics & Sound & Wave Motion.
Detailed Content / Topics – The following Subjects will be addressed -
– Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules;
– Chemical compounds;
– States: solid, liquid and gaseous;
– Changes between states.
– Forces, moments and couples, representation as vectors;
– Centre of gravity;
– Elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity: tension, compression, shear and torsion;
– Nature and properties of solid, fluid and gas;
– Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).
– Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line, motion under constant acceleration (motion under gravity);
– Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifugal/centripetal forces);
– Periodic motion: pendular movement;Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance;
– Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.
– Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential, kinetic and total energy), heat, efficiency;
– Momentum; conservation of momentum;
– Gyroscopic principles;
– Friction: nature and effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance).
3.4. Fluid dynamics
– Specific gravity and density;
– Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining;
– Effects of compressibility on fluids;
– Static, dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli’s Theorem, venture
– Temperature: thermometers and temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin;
– Heat definition;
– Heat capacity, specific heat;
– Heat transfer: convection, radiation and conduction;
– Volumetric expansion;
– First and second law of thermodynamics;
– Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure, work done by expanding gas;
– Isothermal, adiabatic expansion and compression, engine cycles, constant volume and constant pressure, refrigerators and heat pumps;
– Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy, heat of combustion.
5. Optics (Light)
– Nature of light; speed of light;
– Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces, reflection by spherical mirrors, refraction, lenses;
– Fibre optics
6. Wave Motion and Sound
- Wave motion: mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interference phenomena, standing waves;
– Sound: speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch and quality, Doppler effect.