 `Module 2 Covers Physics and looks at Fundamental Units, Matter, Mechanics both Static, Kinetic and Dynamic, Fluid Dynamics & Thermodynamics. Optics & Sound & Wave Motion. Detailed Content / Topics – The following Subjects will be addressed -1. Introduction2. Matter– Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules;– Chemical compounds;– States: solid, liquid and gaseous;– Changes between states.3. Mechanics3.1. Statics– Forces, moments and couples, representation as vectors;– Centre of gravity;– Elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity: tension, compression, shear and torsion;– Nature and properties of solid, fluid and gas;– Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).3.2. Kinetics– Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line, motion under constant acceleration (motion under gravity);– Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifugal/centripetal forces);– Periodic motion: pendular movement;Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance;– Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.3.3. Dynamics– Mass;– Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential, kinetic and total energy), heat, efficiency;– Momentum; conservation of momentum;– Impulse;– Gyroscopic principles;– Friction: nature and effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance).3.4. Fluid dynamics– Specific gravity and density;– Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining;– Effects of compressibility on fluids;– Static, dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli’s Theorem, venture4. Thermodynamics– Temperature: thermometers and temperature scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin;– Heat definition;– Heat capacity, specific heat;– Heat transfer: convection, radiation and conduction;– Volumetric expansion;– First and second law of thermodynamics;– Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure, work done by expanding gas;– Isothermal, adiabatic expansion and compression, engine cycles, constant volume and constant pressure, refrigerators and heat pumps;– Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy, heat of combustion.5. Optics (Light)– Nature of light; speed of light;– Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces, reflection by spherical mirrors, refraction, lenses;– Fibre optics6. Wave Motion and Sound- Wave motion: mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interference phenomena, standing waves;– Sound: speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch and quality, Doppler effect.`

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